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Native Americans Tribes

Upper Plains Region: Tribal History

Below are brief descriptions about the tribes that artist Dave McGary focuses on in his bronze sculptures of the people of the Upper Planes region of Native America:

Apache

Tribal Origin: Apachean Family
Also known as: ápachu, means 'enemy'
Native Name: N'de, Dĭnë, Tĭnde and Inde, means 'people'
Home Territories: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and the
Great Plains
Language: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Plains Apache, Mescalero and Western Apache
Enemies: Spanish, Mexicans and Americans
Point of Interest: Were known as great warriors and intelligent tacticians in battles

Arapaho

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Native Name: Iñunaina, means 'our people'
Home Territories: Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska and Oklahoma
Language: Arapaho
Enemies: Pawnee and Comanche
Point of Interest: In later years became fur traders

Arikara

Tribal Origin: Pawnee Confederacy
Also known as: Sahnish, Arikaree and Ree
Home Territories: North Dakato and South Dakota
Language: Caddoan
Alliances: Mandan and Hidatsas
Point of Interest: Nearly wiped out by Smallpox in the mid-19th century

Assiniboin

Tribal Origin: Siouan Family
Also known as: Asiniibwaan, means 'Stone Sioux'
Native Name: Hohe Nakota
Home Territories: Northern Great Plains of America and Canada
Language: Lakota
Alliances: Cree
Enemies: Atsina and Blackfeet
Point of Interest: A semi-nomatic tribe that hunted bison and sold their hides

Blackfeet

Tribal Origin: Teton Sioux
Native Name: Sihasapa, means 'black feet'
Home Territories: North Dakota and South Dakota
Language: Blackfoot
Tribal Alliance: Piegan, Siksika, Northern Piegan and Kainai
Enemies: Crow, Dakota, Lakota and Nakota
Point of Interest: They received their tribal name due to the fact that they wore black moccasins

Brule Sioux

Tribal Origin: Dakota Tribe
Native Name: Sichanghu, means 'burnt thighs'
Home Territories: The Dakotas
Enemies: Arikara
Point of Interest: They got along well with the Whites in the area

Caddo

Tribal Origin: Caddo Conferacy
Native Name: Hasínai, means 'our own folk'
Home Territories: Colorado, Kansas and eventually Oklahoma
Language: Caddoan
Tribal Alliance: Hasinai, Kadohadacho, and the Natchitoches
Point of Interest: Were sustained through farming and raising cattle

Cheyenne

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Sha-hi'yena, means 'people of alien speech'
Native Name: Dzǐ'tsǐǐstäs, means 'people alike'
Home Territories: Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota and South Dakota
Language: Cheyenne
Alliances: Arapaho and Lakota
Enemies: Ojibwa
Point of Interest: Often worked as scouts for the US Army

Cherokee

Tribal Origin: Iroquoian Family
Tribes of the Cherokee: Ani'-wa'`ya (Wolf), Ani'-Kawĭ' (Deer),
Ani'-Tsi'skwa (Bird), Ani'-wi'dĭ (Paint), Ani'-Sah'a'ni, Ani'-Ga'tagewĭ and Ani'-Gi-lâ'hĭ
Native Name: Tsálăgĭ or Tsárăgĭ, which might mean 'cave people'
Home Territories: Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tenessee and Texas
Languages:

1) Elatĭ, or Lower, at locations near the heads of Savannah River, in South Carolina and Georgia;

2) Middle, mainly near the Tuckasegee River in western North Carolina;

3) A'tŭli, Mountain or Upper, throughout most of upper Georgia, east Tennessee, and extreme western North Carolina.

Alliances: Sided with the Americans during Revolutionary War. During the United States Civil War, most Cherokees sided with the Confederacy
Point of Interest: If a White man married a Cherokee woman, he was granted limited tribal membership. However, if a Cherokee man married a Caucasian woman, he would be forced out of the tribe.

Chippewa

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe and the Chippeway
Native Name: Bāwa'tigōwininiwŭg, means 'people of the Sault'
Home Territories: Michigan, northern Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota
Language: Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin
Alliances: Ottawa and Potawatomi peoples
Enemies: Iroquois Confederacy and the Sioux
Point of Interest: Known for birch bark canoes, wild rice, copper points, and their use of guns from the British to defeat the Dakota and the Sioux

Comanche

Tribal Origin: Shoshone
Native Name: Numunuu, means 'the People'
Home Territories: New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas
Language: Comanche
Alliances: Apache and Kiowa
Enemies: American settlers at times
Point of Interest: Known for attacking on nights with a full moon and for their skills of fighting while on horseback

Dakota

Tribal Origin: Siouan Family
Also known as: Eastern Sioux, Nakota and Lakota
Native Name: Dakota, means 'Allies' or 'Friends'
Home Territories: Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Carolina, Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan
Language: Lakota
Alliances: Sioux Nation
Points of Interest: Known for their bravery

Delaware

Tribal Origin: Lenape
Native Name: Lenape, means 'genuine men'
Tribes of the Delaware: Munsee, Unami, and Unalachtigo
Home Territories: Pennsylvania, New York and eventually Wyoming and Oklahoma
Language: Lenape
Alliances: Nanticoke, Conoy, Shawnee and Mahican
Enemies: Iroquois
Point of Interest: Force to move West by the Iroquois and European settlers

Fox

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Utŭgamig, means 'people of the other shore'
Native Name: Měshkwa`kihŭg' or the 'red-earth people'
Home Territories: Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Wisconsin
Language: Meskwaki
Alliances: Sioux and Iroquois
Enemies: Chippewa, Potawatomi, Menominee and the French
Point of Interest: Extremely violent in warfare, which nearly brought about their demise by the French, who considered the complete annihilation of this clan. Also were code-talkers in WWII.

Gros Ventres

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Tribes of the Atsina: Also known as the Atsina
Native Name: A'ani or A'aninin, means 'white clay people'
Home Territories: Montana and South Saskatchewan
Language: Atsina
Alliances: Blackfeet and then later allied with the Crow; possibly with the Arapaho
Enemies: Assiniboine, Cree and Blackfeet (when the Atsina allied themselves with the Crow)
Point of Interest:
Due to the acquisition of guns by their enemies, they were forced north into Canada.

Hidatsa

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Nuxbaaga, means 'original people'
Home Territories: North Dakota
Language: Hidatsa
Alliances: Mandan
Enemies: Lakota
Point of Interest: Often intermarried with their Mandan ally

Hunkpapa

Tribal Origin: Lakota Sioux Sioux
Native Name: Honkpapa, means 'gatekeepers'
Home Territories: North Dakota and South Dakota
Enemies: All nearby tribes and Whites
Point of Interest: Were the most feared tribe by both other tribes and Whites

Illinois Confederacy

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Iliniwek, means 'man'
Native Name: Inoka, means 'proud men'
Home Territories: Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri
Language: Different dialects of Miami-Illinois
Tribal Alliances: Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Moingwena, Peoria and Tamaroa
Enemies: Sauk, Foxes, Kickapoo and Potawatomi
Point of Interest: Adulterous women were punished by having their noses cut off

Iowa

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Also known as: ayuhwa, means 'sleepy ones'
Native Name: Báxoje, means 'gray snow'
Home Territories: Kansas and Oklahoma
Language: Siouan
Alliances: Sioux
Enemies: Sauk
Point of Interest: Known for being good farmers

Iroquois Confederacy

Tribal Origin: Iroquoian Family
Native Name: Haudenosaunee, means 'People of the Longhouse'
Home Territories: Northeast United States and Midwest
Language: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora
6 Nation Alliance: Tuscarora, Oneida, Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga
Enemies: The Huron and the Algonquin
Point of Interest: Through conquering other tribes, thy sought to incorporate these conquered peoples into the Iroquois Confederacy

Jicarilla

Tribal Origin: Athapascan tribe
Native Name: Jicarillo Apache, means 'little basket'
Home Territories: Colorado and New Mexico
Language: Southern Athabaskan
Enemies: Mescaleros and Navaho
Point of Interest: Considered an extremely cruel Apache tribe

Kickapoo

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Giiwigaabaw
Native Name: Kiwikapawa, means 'stands here and there' or 'wonderer'
Home Territories: Arizona, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Mexico
Language: Kickapoo
Alliances: Shawnee
Point of Interest: Faught against the United States after the US broke numberous treaties

Kiowa

Tribal Origin: Kiowa
Native Name: Kgoy-goo, means 'principle people'
Home Territories: Colorado and Oklahoma
Language: Kiowa
Alliances: Comanches and the Apaches
Enemies: Cheyennes
Point of Interest: Nomatic tribe who survived by hunting buffalo and eating vegetables

Kiowa Apache

Tribal Origin: Athapascan tribe
Also known as: Gattacka
Native Name: Na-ishañ-dina, means 'our people'
Home Territories: Wyoming
Language: Southern Athabaskan
Alliances: Arapaho and Cheyenne
Enemies: Kiowa
Point of Interest: The measles nearly wiped them out

Mandan

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Miah'tanēs, means 'people on the bank'
Home Territories: North Dakota and South Dakota
Language: Mandan and Hidatsa
Alliances: Arikara and Hidatsa
Enemies: Assiniboin and Lakota
Point of Interest: Lived in homes made of logs and clay

Mdewakanton

Tribal Origin: Insanti Dakota
Also known as: Gattacka
Native Name: Na-ishañ-dina, means 'our people'
Home Territories: Nebraska
Language: mde wakan
Point of Interest: Were taught how to harvest rice by traders

Missouri

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Niútachi
Home Territories: Missouri and Nebraska
Language: Siouan
Alliances: Iowa and Oto
Enemies: Fox and Sauk
Point of Interest: Desimated by war and disease, eventually assimilated into the Fox, Sauk and Osage tribes

Ogala

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Ogala, means 'to scatter one's own'
Home Territories: Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming
Language: Lakota
Alliances: Cheyenne
Enemies: All surrounding tribes
Point of Interest: Signed a peace treaty with the United States and the surrounding tribes in 1868

Ojibwa

Tribal Origin: Algonquian Family
Also known as: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Chippewa and the Chippeway
Native Name: Bāwa'tigōwininiwŭg, means 'people of the Sault'
Home Territories: Michigan, northern Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota
Language: Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin
Alliances: Ottawa and Potawatomi peoples
Enemies: Iroquois Confederacy and the Sioux
Point of Interest: The largest North American tribe, living in wigwams, and for hunting, fishing and agriculture

Omaha

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Omaha, means 'those going against the wind or current'
Home Territories: Iowa and Nebraska
Language: Omaha-Ponca
Alliances: Ponca
Enemies: Dakota
Point of Interest: Just like many other tribes, the Smallpox disease greatly reduced their numbers

Osage

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Wah-Zha-Zhe
Home Territories: Missouri and Oklahoma
Language: Osage
Alliances: Kansa, Omaha, Ponca and Quapaw
Enemies: Choctaw, Kickapoo and Kiowa
Point of Interest: Considered to be extremely good hunters

Oto

Tribal Origin: Siouan
Native Name: Otoe
Home Territories: Nebraska and Wisconsin
Language: Chiwere
Point of Interest: When traveling, they lodged in tipis

Ottawa

Tribal Origin: Anishinaabeg
Also known as: Odaawaa, means 'to trade'
Native Name: Nishnaabe, means 'original people'
Home Territories: Michigan and Oklahoma
Language: Ottawa
Enemies: Mascoutens
Point of Interest: Sided with England during the American Revolution and fought against the United States in the Northwest Indian War

Pawnee

Tribal Origin: Caddoan family
Also known as: Paneassa and Pani
Native Name: Chahiksichahiks, means 'men of men'
Tribes of the Pawnee Conferacy: Chaui, Kitkehahki, Pitahauerat, and Skidi
Home Territories: Kansas, Nebraska and Oklahoma
Language: Caddoan and Pawnee
Alliances: United States
Enemies: Lakota
Point of Interest: Never fought against the United States, but always held up their part in the treaties (even when the US failed to do the same)

Peoria

Tribal Origin: Algonquian family
Native Name: Peewaareewa, means 'comes carrying a pack on his back'
Home Territories: Oklahoma
Language: Peoria
Alliances: United States
Enemies: Many northern tribes
Point of Interest: There are no living members of the tribe who can speak the native language

Ponca

Tribal Origin: Siouan family
Also known as: Paneassa and Pani
Native Name: Pánka or Ppánkka
Home Territories: Nebraska and Oklahoma
Language: Omaha-Ponca
Alliances: Kiansa, Omaha and Osage
Enemies: Dakota
Point of Interest: Were first Native Americans to be determined to be able to live under the same laws granted to other US citizens

Quapaw

Tribal Origin: Siouan family
Also known as: Akansea or Akansa, means 'land of the downriver people'
Native Name: Ugákhpa, means 'downstream people'
Home Territories: Indiana andOhio
Language: Caddoan and Pawnee
Alliances: United States
Enemies: Natchez
Point of Interest: The state of Arkansas was named after this tribe

Sauk

Tribal Origin: Algonquian family
Also known as: Ozaagii(-wag)
Native Name: Osā'kiwŭg, means 'people of the yellow earth'
Home Territories: Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Wisconsin
Language: Sauk
Alliances: Fox
Enemies: Sioux, Omaha and Menominee
Point of Interest: Were known to join other tribes' war parties to attack the Spanish as far away as New Mexico

Santee

Tribal Origin: Siouan family
Also known as: Ati, means 'to pitch tents at'
Native Name: Isañyati, means 'knife'
Home Territories: Nebraska
Language: Siouan

Seneca

Tribal Origin: Iroquois Confederacy
Native Name: Onöndowága, means 'people of the great hill'
Home Territories: New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Ontario
Language: Onan'dowa'ga
Alliances: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondagoes and Cayogas
Enemies: Andaste, Susquehannock
Point of Interest: Were known hunting, fishing and cultivating the land

Teton Sioux

Tribal Origin: Sioux
Also known as: Lakota
Native Name: Titonwan, means 'dwellers on the prairie'
Home Territories: Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota
Language: Lakota
Point of Interest: Were known skillful hunters and unrelenting warriors

 

For more information regarding the Native American tribes that Dave McGary focuses on in his bronze sculptures, we recommend the following resources: encarta.msn.com; accessgenealogy.com; Handbook of American Indians, 1906; Handbook of American Indians, 1912, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30, part 1 and 2; wikipedia.org; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ojibwa; mohawktribe.com

Other Native American Tribes of
Bronze Art Sculptor, Dave McGary

Northeast:
Fox, Huron, Mahican, Martha's Vineyard Indians, Mohawk, Objibwe, Shawnee and Shinnecock

Southeast:
Cherokee, Chesapeake, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Pensacola and Seminole

Upper Midwest:
Algonquian Family, Atsina, Chippewa, Dakota, Foxes, Hurons, Iroquois, Oneida, Potawatomi, Shawnee and Winnebago

Upper Plains:
Apache (Jicarilla), Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Brulé Sioux, Caddo, Cheyenne, Cherokee, Chippewa, Comanche Dakota (Sioux), Delaware, Foxes, Gros Ventre, Hidatsa, Hunkpapa, Illinois, Iowa, Iroquois, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Mdewakanton, Sioux, Mandan, Missouri, Oglala, Ojibwa, Omaha, Osage, Oto, Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Quapaw, San Arcs, Sauk, Santee, Seneca, Shawnee and Teton Sioux

Southwest:
Apache, Comanche, Havasupai, Hopi, Jemez, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Lipan, Maricopa, Mohave, Navaho, Paiute, Papago, Panamint, Pecos, Pima, Pueblo, Shoshoni, Sobaipuri, Tewa Pueblos, Ute, Walapai, Yavapai, Yuma and Zuñi

Mountain:
Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboin, Atsina, Bannock, Blackfeet (Siksika), Cheyenne, Chippewa, Comanche, Cree, Crow, Dakota, Jicarilla, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Mandan, Nez Percé, Navaho, Paiute, Pawnee, Piegan, Pueblos, Salish, Shoshonean Family and Shoshoni

Canadian Tribes:
Algonkin, Arapaho, Assiniboin, Atsina, Chippewa, Cree, Crow, Dakota, Haida, Hidatsa, Huron, Iroquois, Kutenai and Tionontati